Amplitude Modulation

introduction: In amplitude modulation communication system ,speech or music is converted into electrical signal by using a device like microphone. The electrical signal is called message or baseband signal. The message signal is then used to electrically vary the amplitude of a pure sine-wave called the carrier. The carrier usually has frequency much greater than…

Introduction to Programming with MASM

introduction: Assembly language are a family of low level languages for programming computers. It implements a symbolic representation of the numeric machine codes and other constants needed to make a program. A utility program called an Assembler is used to translate assembly language statements into the target computer’s machine code. Using an assembler it is…

Introduction to INT Command

introduction: In other programming languages such as C/C++ int command is basically a data type “integer” and int can be input from user or defined value but in emu8086 int (interrupt) command is little bit different so in assembly language we used it to read a character from keyboard, to display a  character or string…

Signals and Signal Space

signals Any quantity that can be represented in terms of time axis or function of independent variable time is called signal. Signal may contain data or information. Weathers are also form of signal they continuously changes with time. systems They are used to process signals. They can modify them and can provide us a lot…

Investigation of Sources of Errors

circuit diagram: introduction: In previous posts we already discussed that every electronic component have there own internal resistance and if there internal resistance exceeds or decrease from its standard value then it starts generating errors. In this post we will discuss these errors by a very simple circuit. Our R1 remain constant 1kΩ but we…

Measurement of internal resistance of PMMC

introduction: In electronics every electronic-meter have some internal resistance if this resistance is more than the normal range then it will not provide us accurate readings and our maximum current drops due to this resistance in this experiment we learn two different methods to calculate internal resistance. Half Scale Deflection Method Volt-Ampere Method 1) circuit…

Calibration of Analog AC/DC Ammeter or Voltmeter

circuit diagram: There are many ways to calibrate meters but the method that we use today is called comparison method. Before starting this first we need to learn about calibration. Calibration is a two-step process 1)Adjustment 2)Verification. These are two main steps to calibrate any meter. The figure given above is used to calibrate Ammeter. M1 shows…