Properties of Z-Transform

  Property Time Domain z-Domain ROC Notation x(n) x1(n) x2(n) X(z) X1(z) X2(z) r2 < |z| < r1 Linearity a1x1(n) + a2x2(n) a1X1(z) + a2X2(z) The intersection of ROC1 and ROC2 Time Shifting x(n-k) z-k X(z) except z=0, if k>0 Scaling in z-Domain anx(n) X(a-1z) |a|r2 < |z| < |a|r1 Time reversal x(-n) X(z-1) 1/r1…

Microprocessor 8088/8086

introduction: The 8086 was introduced in 1978, was the first 16-bit microprocessor introduced by Intel Corporation. 8086 and 8088 are internally 16-bit MPU. However 8086 have 16-bit data bus and 8088 have 8-bit data bus. 8086 and 8088 have the ability to address up to 1Mb of memory and 64k of input/output port. Both are…

Amplitude Modulation

introduction: In amplitude modulation communication system ,speech or music is converted into electrical signal by using a device like microphone. The electrical signal is called message or baseband signal. The message signal is then used to electrically vary the amplitude of a pure sine-wave called the carrier. The carrier usually has frequency much greater than…

Analysis of Wheatstone bridge

introduction: Bridge circuits are commonly used to measure many quantities in electronics such as resistance ,capacitance, inductance and admittance. A bridge circuit is like two port network with a source of excitation connected to one branch of a network and the network is adjusted until the detector indicates no output, At this point the bridge…

Design of Low and High Pass Filter

INTRODUCTION Basically an electrical filter is a circuit that can be designed to modify,reshape or reject unwanted frequencies of an electrical signal. For this article we use two circuits (RC and RL) to detect low and high pass filter. Filters are so named according to the frequency range of signals that they allow to pass…

Introduction to Programming with MASM

introduction: Assembly language are a family of low level languages for programming computers. It implements a symbolic representation of the numeric machine codes and other constants needed to make a program. A utility program called an Assembler is used to translate assembly language statements into the target computer’s machine code. Using an assembler it is…

Introduction to INT Command

introduction: In other programming languages such as C/C++ int command is basically a data type “integer” and int can be input from user or defined value but in emu8086 int (interrupt) command is little bit different so in assembly language we used it to read a character from keyboard, to display a  character or string…

Signals and Signal Space

signals Any quantity that can be represented in terms of time axis or function of independent variable time is called signal. Signal may contain data or information. Weathers are also form of signal they continuously changes with time. systems They are used to process signals. They can modify them and can provide us a lot…

Communication Systems Intro

introduction For over years we use different things to convey a signal but in this course we learn how to convey a signal by using modern techniques.  Let’s start from information source it is basically a sensor used to convert any physical quantity into measurable quantity e.g if input signal is light then sensor will convert…

Investigation of Sources of Errors

circuit diagram: introduction: In previous posts we already discussed that every electronic component have there own internal resistance and if there internal resistance exceeds or decrease from its standard value then it starts generating errors. In this post we will discuss these errors by a very simple circuit. Our R1 remain constant 1kΩ but we…